Interview: Sona Manasaryan, endocrinologist of “Izmirlyan” Medical Center

Blog Image

1. Why does blood sugar rise?
In diabetes, the production of insulin by the beta cells of the pancreas is disrupted, resulting in an increase in blood glucose levels.

2. Is this disease hereditary or acquired?
Hereditary predisposition plays an important role in the development of diabetes.

3. How much glucose in the blood is considered normal?
On an empty stomach, the normal blood glucose level is 3.3-5.5 mmol/l. At an older age, the glycemia of practically healthy people can be 4.4-8.0 mmol / l.

4.If diabetes is  not prevented and controlled in time, what dangers can be expected?
All patients with diabetes should regularly visit the attending endocrinologist and follow his instructions, otherwise they may develop complications affecting all organ systems.

5. How to understand that there is a problem, what signs appear?
The main complaints of patients are severe general weakness, dry mouth, weight loss, skin itching, frequent urination, nighttime urge to urinate, thirst. During the period of decompensation of diabetes, patients can drink from 3 to 5 liters per day. The higher the blood glucose level, the stronger thirst.

6. Is it possible to treat this disease without insulin, what other means are there?
Treatment varies depending on the type of diabetes mellitus. In addition to insulin, there are also oral hypoglycemic agents.

Type 1: In diabetes mellitus, there is an absolute deficiency of insulin, and then the only treatment is the introduction of insulin.

Type 2: In diabetes, there is a relative deficiency of insulin, in which case, depending on the level of glucose in the blood and the severity of the diabetes, antidiabetic drugs can be used.

7. Can excessive consumption of sweets cause diabetes?
This is possible only if a person has a hereditary predisposition, obesity and does not lead a healthy lifestyle.

8. What preventive measures are in place to avoid diabetes?
You should lead a healthy lifestyle: do not smoke, do not abuse alcohol, eat right, exercise, do not gain weight and regulate sleep.

9. How can you prevent diabetes from causing other diseases?
If patients follow the instructions of the attending physician, take their medicines on time, play sports, follow a diet, they will prevent the occurrence of other diseases.

10. Can diabetics get pregnant?
Yes, of course: However, it is necessary to be under the constant supervision of an endocrinologist to avoid further complications.

11. What is diabetic foot and what are the risk factors? Diabetic foot syndrome is a pathological condition of the foot of a patient with diabetes mellitus, which is accompanied by damage to peripheral nerves, skin, soft tissues, bones and joints and is manifested by acute, chronic ulcers, osteoarticular purulent processes.

Diabetic foot syndrome in various forms occurs in 30-80% of diabetic patients, and diabetic foot ulcers – in 6-12%. Risk factors include poor foot care, visual impairment, foot infections, and fungal infections. Age over 60 years, long-term diabetes mellitus, arterial hypertension and hypercholesterolemia.

Sona Manasaryan

Endocrinologist at “Izmirlyan” Medical Center